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About Olive

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The History of the Olive

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Olive Varieties

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Olive Varieties for Planting in the Home Garden & Landscape

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The Olive Harvest

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Olive Facts, Selection & Storage

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Olive Tree Cultivation

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Olive-When to Pick

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Olive Recipes

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Olive from Different Countries

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Black Olives

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Green Olives


Olive Varieties

Green Olives

Black Olives

The only difference between green olives and black olives is ripeness. Unripe olives are green, whereas fully ripe olives are black.

Olives are cured or pickled before consumption, using various methods including oil-cured, water-cured, brine-cured, dry-cured, and lye-cured.

Green olives must be soaked in a lye solution before brining, whereas ripe black olives can proceed straight to brining. The longer the olive is permitted to ferment in its own brine, the less bitter and more intricate its flavor will become. Green olives are usually pitted, and often stuffed with various fillings, including pimientos, almonds, anchovies, jalapenos, onions or capers.

Black olives are graded into sizes labeled as small (3.2 to 3.3 grams each), medium, large, extra large, jumbo, colossal, and supercolossal (14.2 to 16.2 grams). Black olives contain more oil than green.

Unopened olives can be stored at room temperature up to 2 years. Opened olives should be refrigerated in their own liquid in a non-metal container and will last up to several weeks after opening.

Olive Varieties

Here are some of the more popular olive varieties:

manzanilla:  Spanish green olive, available unpitted and/or stuffed, lightly lye-cured then packed in salt and lactic acid brine

picholine:  French green olive, salt-brine cured, with subtle, lightly salty flavor, sometimes packed with citric acid as a preservative in the U.S.

kalamata:  Greek black olive, harvested fully ripe, deep purple, almond-shaped, brine-cured, rich and fruity flavor

niçoise:  French black olive, harvested fully ripe, small in size, rich, nutty, mellow flavor, high pit-to-meat ratio, often packed with herbs and stems intact

liguria:  Italian black olive, salt-brine cured, with a vibrant flavor, sometimes packed with stems

ponentine:  Italian black olive, salt-brine cured then packed in vinegar, mild in flavor

gaeta:  Italian black olive, dry-salt cured, then rubbed with oil, wrinkled in appearance, mild flavor, often packed with rosemary and other herbs

lugano:  Italian black olive, usually very salty, sometimes packed with olive leaves, popular at tastings

sevillano:  Californian, salt-brine cured and preserved with lactic acid, very crisp

Anatomy & Characteristics

The fruit of the olive tree is a drupe, similar to other drupes of stoned fruits such as apricots or cherries and with the same anatomy. Its component parts are : the epicarp or epidermis, the mesocarp or flesh and the endocarp or pit which consists of a woody shell enclosing one or, rarely, two almonds (seeds). However, olives differ from all others drupes in their chemical composition by having a relatively low concentration of sugars, 2-5% versus around 12%, a high oil content, 20-30% versus 1-2%, and in their characteristic strong bitter taste. The last quality is due to the presence in the olive of the glucoside, oleuropein, which does not occur in any other fruit or tissue in the plant kingdom.

The natural bitternes of the fruit can be eliminated, or at least reduced, by processing to make it acceptable as food or an appetizer. The oil content as well as the general composition of the pulp is highly variable, and is dependet on a multiplicity of factors such as climate, soil, culture systems, pruning, fertilizers, tree treatments and harvesting methods. Because of this, cultivated olive trees are clasified into three categories, according to the type of the fruit they produce and their principal use :

a) varieties producing fruit for table use

b) varieties producing fruit for oil extraction

c) varieties producing fruit for both purposes, also called double or dual use varieties.
 

Variety Alias Country of Origin
Abadejo -- Spain
Aberkan -- Algeria
Abunara -- Italy
Acebuchera -- Spain
Acebuchera De Caravaca -- Spain
Achamlal Chemlal de Kabylie --
Achamli Chemlal de Kabylie --
Adramytini -- Greece
Aggezy Shami -- Egypt
Aghenfas -- Algeria
Aglandau -- France
Agouromanakolia -- Greece
Aguenaou -- Algeria
AITANA -- Italy
Akerma -- Algeria
Alameno de Cabra -- Spain
ALBATRO -- Italy
Alemeno Blanco -- Spain
Alemeno De Marchena -- Spain
Alemeno de Montilla -- Spain
Allora -- Italy
Allorina Allora --
Allorino Allora --
Alorena -- Spain
ALOREÑA DE ATARFE-1 -- Spain
ALOREÑA DE IZNALLOZ -- Spain
Amargoso -- Spain
Amellau -- France
Americano -- Italy
Amfisa Amfissa Greece
Amfissa -- Greece
Amphissis Amfissa Greece
Amurdy Zeitun -- Azerbaijan
Amygdalolia -- Greece
Anerina Moraioli --
ARABAN DES ALPES MARITIMES -- France
ARABAN DU VAR -- France
Arancino Pignolo Italy
Arauco Gordal Argentina
Arbequina -- Spain
Arbosana -- Spain
ARGENTAL -- France
Argudell -- Spain
Arlosana -- Spain
Arnasca -- Italy
Ascalano -- Italy
Ascolana Dura -- Italy
Ascolano tenera -- Italy
ASNAL -- Spain
Assisano Moraioli --
Atomatado -- Spain
AUBENC -- France
Avellanejo -- Spain
AVELLANET -- France
AVERAUDE -- France
Avercrin -- Spain
Ayvalik -- Turkey
Azapa -- Chile
Azeitoneira -- Portugal
AZUL -- Spain
Bacy Zeitun -- --
BAGUET -- France
Balady Souri --
Barilaia Frantoio Di Montemurlo --
Barnea -- Israel
Barnea (K-18) -- Israel
BÉ DE CÉZÉ -- France
BÉCHUDE (BÉCHU DE L'ARDÉCHE) -- France
Beladi Souri Lebanon
BELGENTIER -- France
Bella Di Spagna -- Italy
Belluti -- Turkey
BERDANEIL -- France
Beruguette Aglandau France
Bianchera -- Italy
Biancolilla -- Italy
BIGARUDE -- France
BLANC DE PAYSAC -- France
BLANCHE DE VINEZAC -- France
Blanquette -- France
Bodoquera -- Spain
BOLVINO -- Spain
Bombolotto Grignan --
BORRIOLENCA -- Spain
Bosana -- Italy
BOTTONI DI GALLO BOTTONE DI GALLO Italy
Bouteillan -- France
Bracka Oblica --
Brandofino -- italy
BROUTIGNAN -- France
Bucino Moraioli --
BUGA -- Spain
BUIDIEGO -- Spain
CABALLO -- Spain
Cailletier -- France
CALATINA GALATINA Italy
Callosina Cornicabra --
CAMPANITA DE ÉCIJA -- Spain
Canino -- Italy
CAÑIVANO NEGRO -- Spain
CAÑIVANO NEGRO-CJ -- Spain
Cantera -- Spain
Carboncella -- Italy
CARIASINA -- Italy
Carolea PIZZO DI CORVO Italy
Carrasquenha -- Portugal
CARRASQUEÑO DE ALBURQUERQUE -- Spain
CARRASQUEÑO DE ALCAUDETE -- Spain
CARRASQUEÑO DE CAÑAVERAL -- Spain
CARRASQUEÑO DE JUMILLA -- Spain
CARRASQUEÑO DE LA SIERRA -- Spain
CARRASQUEÑO DE LUCENA -- Spain
CARRASQUILLO -- Spain
Cassanese -- Italy
Castellana -- Spain
CASTIGLIONE OLIVO DI CASTIGLIONE Italy
Cavalieri -- Italy
CAYET BLEU -- France
CAYET NOIR -- France
CAYET ROUGE -- France
Cayet Roux -- France
CELOUNEN -- France
CERASUOLA -- Italy
Cerretano Mignolo Cerretano --
Changlot Real -- Spain
CHESNA -- Spain
Chetoui -- Tunisia
CHONDROLIA CHALKIDIKIS -- Greece
CHORREAO DE MONTEFRÍO -- Spain
Chorruo -- Spain
CHRYSOLIA -- Greece
CICIARELLO -- Italy
Cidiliano -- Italy
Ciliegino -- Italy
CIMA DI MELFI -- Italy
Cimignolo Moraioli --
CIRUJAL -- Spain
CLERMONTAISE -- France
Cobrancosa -- Portugal
COLOMBALE -- France
Común Farg Farga --
Comune Frantoio --
Conseruolea Mignola --
Conserva de Elvas -- Portugal
Coratina -- Italy
Corbella -- Spain
CORDOBÉS DE LA ALISEDA -- Spain
Cordovil de Castelo Branco -- Portugal
Cordovil de Serpa -- Portugal
CORGNE -- France
CORIASSE -- France
CORNEZUELO DE JAÉN -- Spain
CORNIALE -- France
Cornicabra -- Spain
CORNICABRA DE MÉRIDA -- Spain
CORRALONES DE ANDÚJAR -- Spain
CORREGGIOLO -- Italy
Cortina -- Italy
COUCOURELLE -- France
COURBEIL -- France
COURNET -- France
CRAPUTEA -- Italy
Crastu -- Italy
Crognolo Frantoio --
Cucco CUCCA Italy
CUL BLANC -- France
Cuoricino -- Italy
DAFNELIA -- Greece
DARAME -- France
DATILERO -- Spain
de Botija Gordal --
Debela Oblica --
DENT DE VERRAT -- France
Dermlali Dhremlalli --
Dermleili Dhremlalli --
Dolce del Marocco -- Morocco
DOPIA ZAKYNTHOU -- Greece
DORÉE DE VINEZAC -- France
Dritta di Moscufo -- Italy
Dulzal -- Spain
DUZAL DE CARMONA-CJ -- Spain
EMILIA -- Italy
Empress Maria Therezian -- Spain
ENAGUA DE ARENAS -- Spain
ERBANU ERBANO Italy
ESCARABAJILLO -- Spain
ESCARABAJUELO DE POSADAS -- Spain
ESCARABAJUELO DE ÚBEDA -- Spain
FARESANA -- Italy
Farga -- Spain
FASOLINA -- Italy
FASOLONA -- Italy
Felciaio Colombino --
FILARE -- Italy
FILAYRE -- France
Fina Frantoio --
Fiorentino Frantoio --
FIRENZUOLO -- Italy
FORASTERA DE TORTOSA -- Spain
Fosco Moraioli --
Frantoiano Frantoio --
Frantoio -- Italy
FRANTOIO RODOU -- Greece
Fruitless Swan Hill --
FULLA DE SALCE -- Spain
Gaidourelia -- Greece
GALATISTAS -- Greece
Galega Vulgar -- Portugal
Gappuda -- --
GARDISSON -- France
GATUNO -- Spain
Gentile Frantoio --
Gentile di Chieti -- Italy
Gerboui -- Tunisia
Germaine -- France
Giaraffa -- Italy
GIARFARA -- Italy
Gigante Di Cerignola -- Italy
GINESTRINO -- Italy
GIOGOLINO -- Italy
GORDAL DE ARCHIDONA -- Spain
GORDAL DE HELLÍN -- Spain
GORDAL DEL OBISPO -- Spain
Gordal Sevillana -- Spain
GORDALEJO -- Spain
GRAND BROUTIGNAN -- France
GRAPIÉ -- France
Grappolo -- Italy
GRASSOIS -- France
Gremignolo -- Italy
Grignan Grignano --
Grit Eytini -- Turkey
GROS VERT -- France
GROSAL DE CIEZA -- Spain
Grossane -- France
GROSSE NOIRE D'ARDÈCHE -- France
GROSSE VIOLETTE -- France
Grosso di Spagna Grossaio --
Grossolano -- Italy
Grozdaca Levantinka --
Gyeta Gaeta --
HABICHUELERO DE BAENA -- Spain
HABICHUELERO DE GRAZALEMA -- Spain
Hojiblanca -- Spain
I/77 -- Morocco
Imperial -- Spain
IMPERIAL DE JAÉN-CJ -- Spain
Infrantoio Frantoio --
Intosso -- Italy
Ionian Greek Green Italy
Itrana -- Italy
Jabaluna -- Spain
Jalut -- Syria
JAROPO -- Spain
Joanenca -- Spain
Kaesi -- Syria
Kalamata CALAMATA --
Kalamon -- Greece
Kalokerida -- Greece
Karidolia -- Greece
Karolia -- Greece
Khderi Khodheri --
Khodairi Khodheri --
KOLYBADA -- Greece
KOLYREIKI -- Greece
Koroneiki Koroneiki Greece
KOTHREIKI -- Greece
Larcianese -- Italy
Lastovka -- Croatia
Laurino Frantoio --
Lazzera Lazzero --
LAZZERA REALE -- Italy
Lazzero grosso Lazzero --
Leccino -- Italy
Leccio Maremmano --
Leccio del Corno -- Italy
LECCIO MAREMMANO -- Italy
Leccione -- Italy
Lechin -- Spain
LECHÍN DE GRANADA -- Spain
Lechin de Sevilla -- Spain
LEFKOLIA SERRON -- Greece
Lentisca -- Spain
Leucocarpa -- Portugal
Levantinka -- Croatia
Lianolia Kerkyras -- Greece
LIANOMANAKO -- Greece
Liguria -- Italy
LIMONCILLO -- Spain
LINAT -- France
LLORÓN DE ATARFE -- Spain
LLORÓN DE IZNALLOZ -- Spain
LLORÓN DE RONDA -- Spain
LLUMETA -- Spain
Loaime -- Spain
Lucca -- --
Lucio -- Spain
Lucquoise Luques --
LUMIARU LUMIARO Italy
Luques -- France
Macanilha Algarvia -- Portugal
MACHO DE JAÉN-CJ -- Spain
MACHORRÓN -- Spain
Madonna Dell'impruneta -- Italy
Madremignolo Madremignola --
MAIATICA DI FERRANDINA -- Italy
Majatica di Ferrandina -- Italy
MALAUSSENA -- France
MANDANICI OLIVO DI MANDANICI Italy
Manna -- Italy
MANTONICA -- Italy
Manzanellera de Huercal Overa -- Spain
MANZANIL DE PIEDRA BUENA-889 -- Spain
Manzanilla Cacerna -- Spain
MANZANILLA DE ABLA -- Spain
Manzanilla De Agua -- Spain
MANZANILLA DE ALMERIA -- Spain
MANZANILLA DE GUADIX-1 -- Spain
MANZANILLA DE HELLÍN -- Spain
MANZANILLA DE JAÉN -- Spain
MANZANILLA DE MONTEFRÍO -- Spain
Manzanilla de Sevilla -- Spain
MANZANILLA DE TORTOSA -- Spain
MANZANILLA DEL CENTRO -- Spain
MANZANILLA DEL PIQUITO -- Spain
Manzanilla Prieta -- Spain
Manzanillo -- Spain
Manzanillo Cacerena -- Spain
MANZANILLO CORDOBÉS DE CABRA-1 -- Spain
MANZANILLO CORDOBÉS DE S.PTO -- Spain
Manzino Mansino --
Maremmano -- Italy
MARTEÑO DE LA CARLOTA -- Spain
Massabi -- Syria
Mastoidis Tsounati -- Greece
MATOLIA -- Greece
Maurino -- Italy
Maurino lucchese Maurino --
MAVRELIA -- Greece
MAVROLIA SERRON -- Greece
Medjhoul Melaiolo --
Megaritiki -- Greece
MELONCILLO -- Spain
Memecik -- Turkey
MENUDEL -- France
Merhavia -- Israel
Meski -- Tunisia
Midx-elbasan -- Albania
Migno Moraioli --
Mignola Mignolo Italy
Mignola domestica Mignolo Cerretano Italy
Mignolo -- Italy
Mignolo Cerretano -- Italy
Milolia Amfissa --
Miniol Mignolo --
MINUTA -- Italy
Minutaio Quercetano Italy
Minuto Mignolo Italy
Mission Leiva -- Colombia
Mollar -- Spain
MOLLAR BASTO -- Spain
MOLLAR DE CIEZA -- Spain
Moncita -- France
MONTAUROUNENQUE -- France
Moraioli -- Italy
Morcaio -- Italy
Morcal -- Italy
Morchiaio -- Italy
Morcone -- Italy
MOREJONA -- Spain
Morella Moraioli Italy
Morellino Moraioli Italy
Morello Moraioli Italy
Morello a Punta -- Italy
Morellona di Grecia -- Italy
Moresca -- Italy
Morichiello Moraioli Italy
Morina Moraioli Italy
Morinello Moraioli Italy
MORISCA -- Spain
MORISCA DE MANACOR -- Spain
Morona -- Italy
Mostazal -- Peru
MOUFLA -- France
Muragliola Moraioli --
MYRTOLIA -- Greece
MYRTOLIA R.I. -- Greece
Nabali -- Israel
Nabali Baladi -- Israel
Nabali Mouhasan -- Israel
Nafpelion Nafphlion --
Nebba nocellara --
NÉGRET CALLIAN -- France
NÉGRETTE DE SAINT JEAN DE LA BLAQUIÉRE -- France
NÉGRETTE DES VANS -- France
NEGRILLO DE ARJONA -- Spain
NEGRILLO DE ESTEPA -- Spain
NEGRILLO DE IZNALLOZ -- Spain
NEGRILLO DE LA CARLOTA -- Spain
NEGRILLO REDONDO -- Spain
Negrinha -- Portugal
NEGRO DEL CARPIO -- Spain
Neraiolo Moraioli --
NERBA -- Italy
Nerella Moraioli --
Nerina Moraioli --
Neriolo Moraioli --
Nevadillo Blanco de Jaen -- Spain
NEVADILLO BLANCO DE LUCENA-CJ -- Spain
NEVADILLO DE SANTISTEBAN PTO -- Spain
NEVADILLO NEGRO-CJ -- Spain
NEVADO AZUL -- Spain
NEVADO BASTO -- Spain
NEVADO RIZADO -- Spain
Nichitskaia -- Soviet Union
Nicoise CAILLETIER --
NIELLADJA -- France
Nocellara del Belice -- Italy
Nocellara Etnea -- Italy
Nocellara Messinese -- Italy
NOCIARA -- Italy
NOIRE GIRAUD -- France
Nostrale -- France
Nostrato Frantoio --
Nuccidara nocellara --
Oblica -- Croatia
OCAL-CJ -- Spain
Occhino Punteruolo --
Ogliarola -- Italy
OGLIAROLA DEL BRADANO -- Italy
OGLIAROLA DEL VULTURE -- Italy
OGLIAROLA MESSINESE Castriciana Italy
Ogliolo Moraioli --
OJO DE LIEBRE -- Spain
Oliva di S.Biagio Santa Caterina --
Oliva di San Giacomo Santa Caterina --
Oliva longa Frantoio --
Oliva lucchese Santa Caterina --
Oliva nera Moraioli --
Oliva tonda Moraioli --
OLIVASTRA DI POPULONIA -- Italy
OLIVASTRE -- France
Olivastro colombino Colombino France
Olivastro maremmano Maremmano France
Olivastro quercetano Quercetano France
Olivella -- France
Oliviere -- France
OLIVO DA MENSA -- Italy
OLIVO DE MANCHA REAL -- Spain
OLIVO DE MAURA DE AGUILAR -- Spain
OLIVO DEL MULINO -- Italy
OLIVO DI CASAVECCHIA -- Italy
OLIVO DI S.LORENZO -- Italy
OLIVO MACHO DE GUADIX-1 -- Spain
OLIVO MACHO DE SANTIST. PTO -- Spain
Orbula Oblica --
Oriolo Moraioli --
ORNELLAIA -- Italy
Ottobratica Perciasacchi -- Italy
Oueslati -- Tunisia
PAGÉTOISE -- Tunisia
Pajerero -- Spain
Palma -- Italy
Palomar -- Spain
PARTANE -- France
PASSULUNARA PASSALUNARA Italy
Patrini Amfissa --
Patronet -- Spain
PAVO -- Spain
PECOSO -- Spain
Pendaglio Frantoio --
Pendagliolo -- Italy
Pendolino -- Italy
Peperella -- Italy
PEQUEÑA DE CASA IBAÑEZ -- Spain
PERILLO DE JAÉN-CJ-1 -- Spain
Pesciatino -- Italy
PETIT BROUTIGNAN -- France
PETITE NOIRE DE PUGET ROSTANG -- France
Petrosello Moraioli Italy
PEZZ'E CUADDU -- Italy
Piangente -- Italy
Picholine -- France
Picholine de Languedoc -- France
Picholine Marocaine -- Morocco
PICO LIMÓN -- Spain
PICO LIMÓN DE GRAZALEMA -- Spain
Picual -- Spain
PICUAL DE ALMERÍA -- Spain
PICUAL DE ESTEPA -- Spain
PICUAL DE HOJA CLARA -- Spain
PICUAL DE HOJA CLARA-1 -- Spain
PICUAL DE HOJA OSCURA -- Spain
Picudo -- Spain
PICUDO BLANCO DE ESTEPA -- Spain
PICUDO DE FRUTO ROJO -- Spain
PICUDO DE MONTORO -- Spain
Pidicuddara -- Italy
Pigale -- France
Pignatello Frantoio --
Pignola Pignolo --
Pikrolia -- Greece
Piliou Amfissa --
PIQUETTE -- France
PIRUNARA -- Italy
Pitoma Oblica --
Piturzello -- --
Pizz'e Carroga -- Italy
PONCHINELLE -- France
POULO -- France
POUMAOU -- France
POUSSOU -- France
Premice Leccino Italy
Prugnolo Mignolo --
Prunara -- Italy
Quercetana Quercetano --
Quercetano -- --
RABEYROLLE -- France
Racema coratina) --
RACHATI -- Greece
Racimal -- Spain
RACIMAL DE JAÉN-CJ -- Spain
Raggiolo Frantoio --
RAITANA Aitana Italy
Rajo Frantoio --
Rapasayo -- Spain
RASCASSET -- France
Razza Frantoio, --
Razzaio -- Italy
Razzo -- Italy
Razzola -- Italy
Real Sevillana -- Spain
RECHINO -- Spain
Redding Picholine -- Italy
Redondil -- Italy
REDONDILLA DE LOGROÑO -- Spain
Redondillo De Lombrona -- Italy
REDOUNEIL -- France
Reftolies -- --
REYMET -- France
RONDE DE VILLENEUVE DE BERG -- France
Rosee Du Mont Dor -- Italy
Rosino -- Italy
Rosselina Rosselino Italy
Rosselino Cerretano -- Italy
Rossellino -- Italy
Rossellino di Cerreto Guidi Rosselino Cerretano Italy
Rossello -- Italy
Rotondella -- Italy
ROUGE DE PUGET ROSTANG -- France
ROUGEON -- France
Rouget de l herault -- France
ROUGETTE DE PIGNAN -- France
ROUGETTE DES VANS -- France
ROUGETTE DU GARD -- France
ROUGETTE L'ARDÈCHE -- France
ROUSSETTE DE SAINT JEAN DU GARD -- France
ROYAL DE CALATAYUD-CJ -- Spain
ROYAL DE CAZORLA -- Spain
Ruzzolino Moraioli --
S.France -- Italy
S.LAZZERO -- Italy
Sabatera -- Spain
SABATIÉROISE -- France
SABINA -- France
SALGAR REDONDO -- Spain
SALICINO -- Italy
Salonenque -- France
Saloniki Amfissa --
Samsun Tuzlamalik -- Turkey
Sant' Agostino -- Italy
Santa AGOSTINO -- Italy
Santa Caterina -- Italy
Santa MARTINENGA -- Italy
santagatese PALERMITANA Italy
SAUZEN VERT -- France
SEVILLANO DE JUMILLA -- Spain
Sevillenca -- Spain
SIGALENQUE -- France
Sigoise -- Algeria
Silvestrone Leccino --
Sinopolese -- Italy
Solciaro Frantoio --
Sollana -- Spain
soltanka Levantinka --
Stringona Frantoio --
Stroghylolies -- Greece
Syrogylolia -- Greece
Tanche -- France
TAULELLE -- France
Tefah Teffahi --
Tempranillo TEMPRANO --
TEMPRANILLO CALATAYUD-CJ -- Spain
TEMPRANILLO DE LUCENA -- Spain
TEMPRANILLO DE YESTE-1 -- Spain
TEMPRANILLO LUCENA-CJ -- Spain
Tempranillode Yeste -- Turkey
TERZA GRANDE -- Italy
TERZA PICCOLA -- Italy
Titah TEFFAHI --
Toffahi Teffahi Egypt
Tonda Gremigna --
TONDA DI CAGLIARI -- Italy
TONDA DI VILLACIDRO -- Italy
TONDA IBLEA -- Italy
Tondello -- Italy
Tondolina Moraioli --
Tondorina Moraioli --
TORCIO DE CABRA -- Spain
TORCIO DE HUELMA -- Spain
Trilya -- Turkey
TRIPUE -- France
UBAC -- France
Uovo di Piccione -- Italy
Uslu -- Turkey
VADDARICA -- Italy
Valanolia -- Greece
VALENSOLE -- France
VALLESA -- Spain
VARUDO -- Spain
Vasilikada -- Greece
Vera -- Spain
VERDAL DE ALHAMA -- Spain
VERDAL DE MANRESA -- Spain
VERDALA -- Spain
Verdale -- France
VERDALE DE L'HÉRAULT -- France
VERDALE DES BOUCHES DU RHÔNE -- France
VERDALÓN -- Spain
VERDANEL -- France
Verdeal -- Portugal
Verdeal Alentejana -- Portugal
Verdeal Transmontana -- Portugal
VERDELET -- France
VERDELLO -- Italy
Verdena -- Spain
VERDIAL DE CÁDIZ -- Spain
VERDIAL DE MONTEFRÍO -- Spain
VERDIAL DE VÉLEZ MALAGA -- Spain
Verdiell -- Spain
VERDILLA DE CALATAYUD-CJ -- Spain
VERMILLAU -- France
VILETTE -- France
Villalonga -- Spain
VIOLETTE DE MONTPELLIER -- France
VIVARAISE -- France
Yauquina Gordal --
Yuaca -- Peru
Yun Celebi -- Turkey
Zaity -- Syria
Zalmati -- Tunisia
Zarza -- Spain
ZARZARIEGA DE ORCERA -- Spain
Zoragi -- Tunisia

1046 <- Total Varietals listed

  • These varietals are grown in the Mediterranean countries which produce most of the world's olives ( Italy, France, Spain,Greece, Tunisia, Morocco, Turkey, Portugal) and Mexico, South Africa, Australia, and of course in California.

  • Some Varietals are disputed. The four main varieties of olives grown in CA: Mission - originally cultivated by the Franciscan missions, Manzanillo - the most prevalent, and Sevillano and Ascolano - the larger sizes.

The Flower

The olive tree produces long clusters of flowers which are useful in distinguishing different varieties. They are typically wind pollinated and hermaphroditic. Many varieties are incapable of self pollination.

The Fruit

The fruit is technically a drupe with three parts; the epidermis (epicarp) which remains green throughout the growth phase then turns purple and brown when ripe, the fleshy part (mesocarp) which contains the oil and the stone or pit (endocarp) which holds the seed.

References :

http://www.oliveoilsource.com/varietalsfreame.htm 

 

 

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